|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 62-64
Unilateral fibrotic enlargement of gingiva with unknown etiology: A rare findings
Mohammad Arif Khan, Amitandra Kumar Tripathi, Rajeev Kumar Jaishwal, Poonam Agrawal
Department of Periodontology, Career Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||22-Dec-2015|
Mohammad Arif Khan
Department of Periodontology, Career Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a rare condition characterized by massive enlargement of the gingiva. It can be an isolated entity or may be associated with syndrome. In this case report, A 15-year-old female reported with a chief complaint of swollen gums which was slowly progressive since last 2 years that affects the esthetic appearance and functional movement such as mastication. On her intraoral examination revealed that there was unilateral, generalized, diffuse fibrotic gingival enlargement with pseudopockets. The lesion was surgically removed. Postoperative healing was satisfactory with significant improvement in esthetic appearance and mastication. There was no postoperative recurrence during 2 years of follow-up.
Keywords: Diffuse gingival enlargement, idiopathic, internal bevel gingivectomy
|How to cite this article:|
Khan MA, Tripathi AK, Jaishwal RK, Agrawal P. Unilateral fibrotic enlargement of gingiva with unknown etiology: A rare findings. J Oral Res Rev 2015;7:62-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Khan MA, Tripathi AK, Jaishwal RK, Agrawal P. Unilateral fibrotic enlargement of gingiva with unknown etiology: A rare findings. J Oral Res Rev [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Apr 7];7:62-4. Available from: http://www.jorr.org/text.asp?2015/7/2/62/172497
| Introduction|| |
Idiopathic gingival enlargement (IGF) is a rare condition which is characterized by slowly, progressive, nonhemorrhagic fibrotic enlargement of the gingiva.  This condition may diagnose as an isolated disorder or as a part of syndromes such as Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, Jones syndrome, and Cross syndrome. ,
Enlarged gingiva is pink in color, firm in consistency with abundant surface stippling and affects the entire gingiva including marginal gingiva, attached gingiva, and interdental papilla. 
Gingival enlargement has potential of cosmetic implications and also provides a favorable environment for the growth of microorganisms which is a serious concern for both patients and clinician. Although gingival overgrowth also causes major problems such as the maintenance of oral hygiene, difficulty while mastication, unesthetic appearance, and impaired nutrition due to disfiguration of gingiva.
Nonsurgical periodontal therapy can reduce the size of the clinical lesions by up to 40%, mainly due to the elimination of bacteria. Hence, complete resolution of the lesion requires surgical intervention. 
Histopathological features of this condition are hyperplastic epithelium with elongated and thin papillae inserted in fibrous connective tissues along with a marked increase in the amount of connective tissue which is mostly avascular. 
| Case Report|| |
In the present case, a 15-year-old female reported with her mother to outpatient Department of Periodontology at Career Post Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, with a chief complaint of swollen gums which was slowly and progressively enlarged since last 2-3 years. She did not reported of any positive drugs, and none of her family members were affected with any form of gingival enlargement. Her current health condition and mental status were normal.
On her intraoral examination revealed that there was unilateral (right side) fibrotic enlargement of the gingiva [Figure 1]. The gingiva was pink in color with superimposed melanin pigmentation and observed no bleeding on probing.
Enlargement was diffuse type and affected the right side of gingiva of both upper and lower jaws [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Biopsy sample was taken and send for histopathological examination showing stratified squamous epithelium with long slender rete-peg, abundant of connective tissues and dense collagen stoma [Figure 4] and [Figure 5].
|Figure 4: Histopathological specimen showing stratifi ed squamous epithelium with long slender rete-pegs, connective tissue, and dense collagen stroma|
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|Figure 5: Orthopantomogram of patient showing normal alveolar bone architecture|
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On the basis of clinical and histopathological examination, the diagnosis of IGF was made with no syndromic association.
In this case report, gingival enlargement was satisfactorily treated with nonsurgical periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instruction and oral prophylaxis. However, due to incomplete resolution of the enlargement, surgical excision of enlarged gingival tissue was done under local anesthesia by techniques of external bevel gingivectomy. Postoperative healing was satisfactory, and adequate exposer of crown length was achieved [Figure 6] and [Figure 7]. The patient was satisfied with the esthetic appearance and functional movement such as mastication. The patient was followed up regularly at 1, 3, and 6 months interval followed by after 1 and 2 years. There was no recurrence of the lesion at the end of 2 years.
| Discussion|| |
Gingival enlargement is mostly due to various drugs, conditions, syndromes, and hereditary disorders.  Clinically and histopathologically, it is difficult to differentiate the enlargement may be due to drugs induced, hereditary disorders or it is idiopathic.  In this case report, diagnosis of IGF was made on the basis of patient history, clinical and histopathological examination.
Exact molecular and cellular mechanism which play important role in this condition is not clearly mentioned.  According to some recent studies, rapid proliferation rate of fibroblast cells, increase in collagen synthesis, and other extracellular matrix component such as fibronectin and glycosaminoglycans, , decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-2), may be associated with this condition. 
Treatment methods for gingival enlargement are depends on the severity of the lesion.  When the enlargement is minimal and possible to maintain by the patient, scaling and root planning along with proper maintenance of oral hygiene may be sufficient but when enlargement is massive, surgical intervention such as internal bevel or external bevel gingivectomy, electrocautery, and carbon dioxide lasers, is required to restore the functional and esthetic appearance. There is no any clear-cut evidence about recurrence, so the postoperative long-term benefit of periodontal surgery cannot be predicted. In this case report, there was no recurrence of the lesion even after 2 years of follow-up.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7]