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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 8-11

Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalized elderly population in Mangalore, Karnataka, India


Department of Public Health Dentistry, A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication2-Mar-2017

Correspondence Address:
R Pandya Sajankumar
Department of Public Health Dentistry, A. J. Institute of Dental Sciences, N. H. 17, Kuntikhana, Mangalore - 575 004, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2249-4987.201400

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  Abstract 

Aim: To assess the data regarding dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes of Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in Mangalore. The sample size was estimated to be 300. The information related to sociodemographic data, prosthetic status, and prosthetic need was obtained using the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form 1997. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data.
Results: Out of 300 elderly people, 94 were males and 206 were females. The study results showed that 53.1% and 60.45% of the total subjects had no prostheses in upper and lower arch, respectively. The study also revealed that the need for full prostheses was more among females compared to males.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that need for prosthesis was high among the institutionalized elderly.

Keywords: Aged, cross-sectional study, prosthesis


How to cite this article:
Hegde V, Sajankumar R P. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalized elderly population in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. J Oral Res Rev 2017;9:8-11

How to cite this URL:
Hegde V, Sajankumar R P. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalized elderly population in Mangalore, Karnataka, India. J Oral Res Rev [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 May 27];9:8-11. Available from: http://www.jorr.org/text.asp?2017/9/1/8/201400


  Introduction Top


Aging is a natural global process with a normal biological phenomenon.[1] Denham Harman defined aging as “the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies the advancing age.”[2] Worldwide, a demographic revolution is underway. Lifespan of geriatric people has increased because of the discoveries in medicine and improvement in social living conditions.[3]

India is the second most populous country in the world. In March 2012, the population size aged 60 years and above, was 98.5 million.[4] In 2015, there were 901 million people aged 60 years and above, comprising 12% of the global population. It is growing at a rate of 3.26 percent per year.[5] This number will be doubled by 2025. This gives dreadful challenges to health and social policy planners because disease patterns keep changing coincidentally.[3]

Oral diseases are progressive and agglomerative in nature.[6] The final outcome for most of the oral diseases is tooth loss, which affects the oral health-related quality of life.[6] There are a few studies that have assessed prosthetic status and needs in institutionalized elderly in Mangalore.[1],[7] However, there is a continuous need to assess the same to observe the changing trends of oral disease and formulate a plan of an oral health care program for institutionalized elderly. Thus, the present study was conducted, with the aim of assessing the dental prosthetic status and prosthetic need of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in Mangalore, India.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross-sectional survey was conducted among institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in Mangalore for 1 year. The study population consisted of institutionalized elderly residing in geriatric homes of Mangalore, Karnataka, India. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Ethical Clearance Committee of the Institution, and permission was obtained from authorities of the old age homes. Out of the 14 old age homes present in Mangalore city, 10 were selected randomly. All the inmates of these old age homes were consider as participants. The subjects who gave informed consent and who fulfilled the following inclusion and exclusion criteria were included for the study:

Inclusion criteria

  • Subjects who were physically and mentally capable for oral examination
  • Subjects above the age of 60 years.


Exclusion criteria

  • Subjects whose systemic condition did not permit them for oral examination. Seven inmates fell into the exclusion criteria.


A pilot study was conducted to know the feasibility and to estimate the sample size for the study. The sample size was estimated to be 300 (Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and compare to male number of females were more.). The power of the study was 80% with confidence interval 95%. The information related to sociodemographic data, prosthetic status, and prosthetic need was obtained using the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form 1997. The examination was done by a single examiner. Intra-examiner calibration was done using Kappa statistics, which was found to be 0.76, reflecting a high degree of agreement. Type III examination (ADA) was done to collect the data.

Statistical analysis

The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A difference was considered to be of statistical significance if the P < 0.05.


  Results Top


Study participants comprised 300 subjects (94 males and 206 females) aged 60 years and above. The mean age was 70.1 ± 5.3 years.

The distribution of study population according to prosthetic status of upper and lower arch is shown in [Table 1]. The table shows that 53.1% and 60.45% of the total subjects had no prostheses in upper and lower arch, respectively. The percentage of subjects who had partial denture in upper and lower arch was 17.55% and 15.8%, respectively. The percentage of subjects with bridge and full removable denture were more in upper arch when compared to lower arch.
Table 1: Distribution of study population according to prosthetic status of upper and lower arches

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The distribution of study population according to gender and the prosthetic status is shown in [Table 2]. The table shows 59.4% of the females and 46.8% of the males had no prostheses in upper arch relatively, and 68.9% of the females and 52% of the males had no prostheses in their lower arch. The percentage of males with partial denture, bridge, and full removable denture were more when compared to females. Comparison of gender and prosthetic status in upper and lower arches showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).
Table 2: Distribution of study population according to gender and prosthetic status of upper and lower arches

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The distribution of study population according to prosthetic need of upper and lower arches is shown in [Table 3]. The table shows that 46.55% and 46.05% of the total subjects did not need prostheses in upper and lower arches, respectively. The need for full prosthesis was more in lower arch when compared to upper arch.
Table 3: Distribution of study population according to prosthetic need of upper and lower arches

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The distribution of study subjects according to gender and the prosthetic need is shown in [Table 4]. Table shows that 43.6% and 45.7% of the male subjects did not need prostheses in upper and lower arches, respectively. Prostheses were not needed in 49.5% and 46.4% of the females in upper and lower arches, respectively. The percentage of female subjects who needed full prosthesis in upper and lower arches was 22.3% and 26.7%, respectively. Comparison of gender and prosthetic need in their upper and lower arches showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).
Table 4: Distribution of study population according to gender and prosthetic need of upper and lower arches

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  Discussion Top


The present study provides an overview on the prosthetic status and prosthetic needs among institutionalized elderly people of Mangalore city. Many studies have demonstrated that screening is effective in identifying the prosthetic need of elderly.[1],[8],[9],[10] There have also been similar studies done on the prosthetic status and need of the elderly people in other parts of Karnataka, India.[1],[8],[11]

In this study when prosthetic status was assessed, the percentage of study subjects who did not have any prostheses was high when compared to study subjects who had one or other type of prostheses. Similar results were found in a study conducted by Shenoy RP et al[1] and National Oral Health Survey 2002–2003, Karnataka.[11] The reason may be due to, lack of awareness, lack of interest in esthetic, financial constraint, and fear of not being able to adapt to denture.[9],[10]

When the prosthetic status was compared with gender, the results showed that the percentage of males having one or other form of prostheses was more when compared to females in both upper and lower arches, though the statistically significant difference was not found. This result is in concurrence to a study conducted by Deogade et al.[9] and National Oral Health Survey 2002–2003, Karnataka.[11] The reason might be that males are more economically independent compared to women.

When the prosthetic need was compared between the upper and lower arches, the need for full prosthesis was more compared to the need of other prostheses. The prosthetic need for full prosthesis was more among female when compared to males in both upper and lower arches, which is in concurrence to a study conducted by Deogade et al.[9] This is in contrast to a study conducted by Shenoy and Hegde [1] in which they found high percentage of males required full prosthesis when compared to females in relation to upper and lower arch. Similar results were found in a National Oral Health Survey 2002–2003, Karnataka.[11] Females have lower level of education, lack of employment and depend on their families to avail treatment. These may be possible reasons for higher number of females being edentulous over males.[9]


  Conclusion Top


The present study concludes that need for prostheses were high among the institutionalized elderly. This provides a foundation for planning of a novel oral health-care approach which is potentially feasible and also educates and motivates the geriatric population about oral health care.

Recommendation

The government has a key role to play in promoting and developing policies to tackle oral health inequalities, among the elderly. The dental colleges should actively get involved in providing oral health care in the deprived areas to counter the barriers of distance, especially for elderly.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Shenoy RP, Hegde V. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic need of the institutionalized elderly living in geriatric homes in Mangalore: A pilot study. ISRN Dent 2011;2011:987126.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Sinor MZ. Oral health assessment among elderly staying in shelter (Rumah Seri Kenangan), Kelantan, Malaysia. IJHSSI 2013;2:43-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Mary AV, Ebenezar R, Chaly PE, Ingle N, Reddy VC. Oral health status and treatment needs of geriatric population of old age homes of Chennai city, India. J Oral Health Res 2010;2:82-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mahajan A, Ray A. The Indian elder: Factors affecting geriatric care in India. Glob J Med Public Health 2013;2:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP. 241; 2015.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Bhogisetty C, Rao N, Narayanaraopeta S, Sanikommu S, Marri T, Reddy R. Dental prosthetic status and needs of adult rural population living in and around Nalgonda: A survey. J Dr NTR Univ Health Sci 2012;1:245-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Eachempati P, Shenoy VK, Jain N, Singh S. Prosthodontic status and needs of elderly institutionalized residents in Mangalore: A prospective study. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:284-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.
Pavan TP, Kaleswararao, Sangeetha Lakshami B, Roshan Kumar P. Exploration of prosthetic status and treatment needs among elderly population in Bangalore city. Int J Dent Health Sci 2014;1:451-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Deogade SC, Vinay S, Naidu S. Dental prosthetic status and prosthetic needs of institutionalised elderly population in oldage homes of Jabalpur city, Madhya Pradesh, India. J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2013;13:587-92.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kumar DR, Raju DS, Naidu L, Deshpande S, Chadha M, Agarwal A. Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs amongst geriatric fishermen population of Kutch Coast, Gujarat, India. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2015;66:167-71.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Bali RK, Hiremath SS, Puranik MP. National Oral Health Survey Fluoride Mapping 2002-2003, Karnataka. 1st ed. New Delhi: Dental Council of India; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 11
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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