|Year : 2018 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 62-67
Evaluation of the awareness and knowledge of orthodontics and orthodontic treatment in patients visiting School of Dental Sciences, Karad
Pratap N Mane1, Shweta D Patil1, Krishna Kadam1, Chanamallappa R Ganiger1, Renuka L Pawar1, Sandesh A Phaphe1, AR Yusuf1, Pradeep A Bapana2
1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
|Date of Web Publication||10-Sep-2018|
Dr Pratap N Mane
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, School of Dental Sciences, KIMSDU, Karad, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: The aim of the study attitudes and perceptions toward dental appearance differ among populations and individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding awareness of orthodontic treatment among village population in the Indian context.
Materials and Methods: After due ethical clearance, a prestructured questionnaire consisting of twenty questions was given to random 500 patients visiting the School of Dental Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India, in the age group of 18–25 years, who may or may not have taken orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria used were systemically compromised patients. The responses of the patients to the questions were recorded on a 3-point Likert scale. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to describe the study variables. The Chi-square test procedure was used to compare means for two groups.
Results: Chi square tests done on the data obtained from random village population suggests that there is significant difference between the awareness of orthodotnic treatment in males and females.
Conclusion: Within limits of this study, it may be concluded that people in rural areas comparatively lack awareness regarding advances and various techniques in orthodontic treatment. Although people are concerned regarding their facial appearance, lack of awareness regarding this field makes them unapproachable to an orthodontist.
Keywords: Awareness, orthodontic treatment, village population
|How to cite this article:|
Mane PN, Patil SD, Kadam K, Ganiger CR, Pawar RL, Phaphe SA, Yusuf A R, Bapana PA. Evaluation of the awareness and knowledge of orthodontics and orthodontic treatment in patients visiting School of Dental Sciences, Karad. J Oral Res Rev 2018;10:62-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Mane PN, Patil SD, Kadam K, Ganiger CR, Pawar RL, Phaphe SA, Yusuf A R, Bapana PA. Evaluation of the awareness and knowledge of orthodontics and orthodontic treatment in patients visiting School of Dental Sciences, Karad. J Oral Res Rev [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 May 19];10:62-7. Available from: http://www.jorr.org/text.asp?2018/10/2/62/240922
| Introduction|| |
India being a developing country, there are still remote villages unaware of the advances in various fields; one such being orthodontics. One of the most common dental problems in humanity along with dental caries, gingival disease, and dental fluorosis is malocclusion. However, malocclusion is still not considered to be a dental problem because more priority is given to the treatment of dental caries and periodontal diseases due to pain experienced by them. A malocclusion is defined as an irregularity of the teeth or a mal relationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Maloccluded teeth can cause psychosocial problems related to impaired dentofacial esthetics. Malocclusion may also lead to problems of oral cavity (traumatic bite and cheek bite), and it may also be one of the factors for rejection during marriage proposals. The uptake of orthodontic treatment is influenced by the desire to look attractive, self-esteem, and self-perception of dental appearance.
Health is multifactorial and multidimensional and influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle, environment, socioeconomic status, and others. Oral health is a comfortable and functional dentition that allows individuals to continue their social role. Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behavior. Awareness is the state or quality of being aware of something.
Both perceived need and demand vary with social and cultural conditions, but the most important motivation for orthodontic treatment is usually an improvement in appearance. There is a paucity of data about the awareness of orthodontic treatment among village population in the Indian context. Thus, the study was conducted to find out the awareness toward orthodontic treatment among patients visiting the School of Dental Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India.
| Materials and Methods|| |
A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted at KIMSDU, Karad (ref no.: KIMSDU/IEC/04/2016). The patients' personal details were collected. The survey was conducted on the patients coming to the outpatient department in the School of Dental Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India, after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethics Committee confidential throughout the study process.
A prestructured questionnaire consisting of twenty questions was given to random 500 patients after obtaining their informed consent. The questions included in the survey helped to assess the awareness of patients toward dentist and orthodontic treatment as a whole. Few questions assessed whether the patients faced any problem during marriage proposals either due to malaligned teeth or due to braces placed during that period. The responses of the patients to the questions were recorded on a 3-point Likert scale (a. yes, b. no, and c. don't know).
- Patients in the age group of 18–25 years
- Patients may or may not be taking orthodontic treatment
- Patients who have had undertaken orthodontic treatment in the past.
- Mentally compromised patients
- Patients not fitting in the desired age group.
Data were coded and entered into excel sheet. To maintain the data quality (validity), rechecking and cross-checking was done during data entry phase. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to describe the study variables. The Chi-square-test procedure was also used to compare means for two groups with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant.
| Results|| |
A total of 32% of people have not heard of an orthodontist before; 52.2% people have not noticed other people having irregular teeth and 29.8% do not know that irregular teeth can be aligned [Table 1] and Graph 1]. This suggests that there is general lack of awareness about the dentist in village population A total of 67.2% of people do not know the ill effects of irregular teeth and 71.6% of people do not know the ill effects of oral habits on teeth; 31.8% people believe that aligned teeth does not contribute for better facial appearance; and 84.8% people were advised for aligning their teeth in the past [Table 2] and Graph 2]. A total of 98% people have seen other people wearing braces; 51.2% of people know the duration for braces is longer than any other dental treatment; 77.8% of people have not felt the need to wear braces; 2.4% of people know that oral habits can be treated using braces; 46.6% of people know the cost for orthodontic treatment is high; and none of them knew various techniques for correction of malaligned teeth [Table 3] and Graph 3]. Nearly 17.4% people faced problem during marriage proposals due to malaligned teeth and 9.8% people faced problem during marriage proposals due to braces [Table 4] and Graph 4]. Nearly 31.8% of people have taken orthodontic treatment and 21.6% people noticed change in their personality after orthodontic treatment [Table 5] and Graph 5].
Chi-square test of independence was done to check the correlation between responses and gender for each question; it was found that there was a relation between awareness of males and females about dentist (P < 0.05). It was also found that there was a relation between awareness of males and females about irregular teeth (P < 0.05) but failed to show relation between awareness of males and females about teeth removal for correcting irregular teeth.
There was relation between awareness of males and females about orthodontic treatment for irregular teeth as well as oral habits (P < 0.05). It was also seen that there was relation between males and females about problems faced during marriage proposals due to irregular teeth or braces (P < 0.05) [Table 6].
| Discussion|| |
Globally, there has been an increase in the awareness of orthodontics as a dental specialty in children as well as adults., A similar trend has been reported in Nigeria with an associated increase in orthodontic care. However, in a developing country like India, it was seen that the level of dental health knowledge, positive dental health attitude, and dental health behavior are interlinked and associated with the level of education and income as demonstrated by studies in the past.,,,,, Thereby, attitudes and perceptions toward dental appearance differ among populations and individuals. A study stated that the orthodontic awareness level was unsatisfactory, and the correlation between the awareness level and malocclusion problems was poor.
In the present study, 500 patients visiting the School of Dental Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and evaluated regarding awareness of orthodontic treatment on a questionnaire basis. The study was conducted in a dental hospital, which generally have patients from a wide range of social backgrounds. The sample does not represent the whole Indian population but rather gives an overview of the potential orthodontic awareness among Indian population in the rural area. The response rate to the questionnaire was 100%, and 100% of the returned questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Data frequency graphs and tables were made for clear understanding of the awareness among general village population. Although the basic awareness regarding dentist is worth appreciable, it was seen that the village population, in general, lacks awareness with respect to irregular teeth, its consequences, and different treatment modalities for correction of irregular teeth. It was seen that none of them were aware of retainers to be used once orthodontic treatment is completed.
Chi-square test was also done to find the correlation between males and females regarding the awareness of orthodontic treatment. It was seen that males on an average have more awareness about orthodontic treatment compared to females. This can be attributed to females being unaware of the advances in the field due to lack of exposure to the developing aspect of the field. However, compared to males, females face more problems during marriage proposals either because of irregular teeth or ongoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Therefore, a general increase in awareness regarding this field may be helpful to people. If they are aware of interceptive orthodontics, it may help lower the financial burden of fixed therapy and also prevent the progress of malocclusion. A study conducted by Sheikh et al. among schoolchildren in Pune, Maharashtra, concluded that about 86% of schoolchildren considered well-aligned teeth important for overall facial appearance. Therefore, intercepting malocclusion might have a positive impact on children's psychological development as well. Furthermore, placement of ceramic braces may help females to tackle stress related to their facial appearance which may be caused due to nonesthetic approach of conventional braces.
| Conclusion|| |
There are many studies undertaken to know the awareness of students or teachers regarding orthodontic treatment throughout the world. However, in a developing country like India, awareness can be best known by assessing the knowledge of village population. Therefore, the present study was undertaken by assessing patients visiting the School of Dental Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Within limits of this study, it may be concluded that people in rural areas comparatively lack awareness regarding advances and various techniques in orthodontic treatment. Although people are concerned regarding their facial appearance, lack of awareness regarding this field makes them unapproachable to an orthodontist.
Further scope of the study
This study may prove to be of beneficial help to those undertaking similar studies in future to broaden our views regarding orthodontics and undertaking various measures to make people aware of problems arising due to irregular teeth or oral habits and ways to treat them.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Dhar V, Jain A, Van Dyke TE, Kohli A. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2007;25:103-5.
] [Full text]
Walther DP, Houston WJ, Jones ML, Oliver RG. Walther and Houston's Orthodontic Notes. 5th
ed. Oxford: Wright; 1994.
Kenealy P, Frude N, Shaw W. An evaluation of the psychological and social effects of malocclusion: Some implications for dental policy making. Soc Sci Med 1989;28:583-91.
Mandeep KB, Nirola A. Malocclusion pattern in orthodontic patients. Indian J Dent Sci 2012;4:20-2.
Mahajan BK. Social environment. Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 1st
ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.; 1991. p. 82-7.
Ashley FP. Role of dental health education in preventive dentistry. In: Murray JJ, editor. Prevention of Dental Disease. 3rd
ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996. p. 406-14.
Wright FA. Children's perception of vulnerability to illness and dental disease. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1982;10:29-32.
Mugonzibwa EA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Van't Hof MA, Kikwilu EN. Perceptions of dental attractiveness and orthodontic treatment need among Tanzanian children. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2004;125:426-33.
Anitha G, Asiya B. Adult orthodontics. IJDA 2010;2:96-9.
Dacosta OO. The prevalence of malocclusion among a population of Northern Nigeria school children. West Afr J Med 1999;18:91-6.
Al-Wahadni AM, Al-Omiri MK, Kawamura M. Differences in self-reported oral health behavior between dental students and dental technology/dental hygiene students in Jordan. J Oral Sci 2004;46:191-7.
Kawamura M, Sasahara H, Kawabata K, Iwamoto Y, Konishi K, Wright FA, et al.
Relationship between CPITN and oral health behaviour in Japanese adults. Aust Dent J 1993;38:381-8.
Barrieshi-Nusair K, Alomari Q, Said K. Dental health attitudes and behaviour among dental students in Jordan. Community Dent Health 2006;23:147-51.
Kawamura M, Spadafora A, Kim KJ, Komabayashi T. Comparison of united states and Korean dental hygiene students using the Hiroshima university-dental behavioural inventory(HU-DBI). Int Dent J 2002;52:156-62.
Hamilton ME, Coulby WM. Oral health knowledge and habits of senior elementary school students. J Public Health Dent 1991;51:212-9.
Kerosuo H, Laine T, Kerosuo E, Ngassapa D, Honkala E. Occlusion among a group of Tanzanian urban schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1988;16:306-9.
Nobile CG, Pavia M, Fortunato L, Angelillo IF. Prevalence and factors related to malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescents in Italy. Eur J Public Health 2007;17:637-41.
Kaur B. Evaluation of oral health awareness in parents of preschool children. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20:463-5.
] [Full text]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]