|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 94-99
Intracanal medicaments – Their use in modern endodontics: A narrative review
Ashok Kumar, Sadaf Tamanna, Huma Iftekhar
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
|Date of Submission||16-Jan-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||17-May-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||15-Jul-2019|
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The main goal of an endodontic treatment is complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts, and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete sealing of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought as an important step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning has been emphasized greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Furthermore, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is nowadays indicated, and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple-visit endodontics are almost similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics. however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, an intracanal medicament is strongly recommended. Therefore, the aim of this review is to critically appraise the need for an ideal intracanal medicament and to select cases requiring intracanal medicament instead of using it for each and every case.
Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, intracanal medicament, limitations, modern endodontics
|How to cite this article:|
Kumar A, Tamanna S, Iftekhar H. Intracanal medicaments – Their use in modern endodontics: A narrative review. J Oral Res Rev 2019;11:94-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Kumar A, Tamanna S, Iftekhar H. Intracanal medicaments – Their use in modern endodontics: A narrative review. J Oral Res Rev [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Jul 7];11:94-9. Available from: http://www.jorr.org/text.asp?2019/11/2/94/262762
| Introduction|| |
Should intracanal medicaments be used in modern endodontics?
Success in endodontic treatment was originally based on the triad of debridement, thorough disinfection, and obturation of root canal system, with each and every aspects equally important. At present, successful root canal treatment is based on much broader principles despite these core behind any successful treatment. This includes diagnosis and treatment planning; knowledge of anatomy and morphology; the traditional concepts of debridement, thorough disinfection, and obturation; and the coronal restoration. Nowadays, with the advent of modern endodontics, the whole scenario of endodontic protocol has changed a lot. The enhanced visibility and better chemomechanical preparation techniques and imaging modalities have drastically changed the outcomes of routine endodontics. In every aspect of endodontic practice, the new techniques and methodology has encroached ranging from the access cavity preparation till a definitive restoration. As we all know, access cavity preparation is considered a fundamental step in orthograde endodontic treatment. Looking back to the earlier practice of “Extension for prevention” have changed into “prevention of extension” (minimally invasive dentistry). From the concept of minimally invasive dentistry, contracted endodontic cavities have stemmed out. It has been presented as an alternative to traditional endodontic access cavities and is designed to preserve the mechanical stability of the tooth. The contracted cavity design preserves more of the dentin but may otherwise influence the geometric shaping parameters. Root canal instrumentation is usually accomplished by the use of endodontic instruments and irrigating solutions under aseptic conditions. Endodontic instruments have underwent a revolutionary change until the last decade of past century when they were manufactured mainly out of stainless steel. However, nowadays, NITI instrument has proven a valuable adjunct. NITI instruments have undergone a revolution regarding different designs to produce cutting efficiency and resistance to fracture. In spite of all these advances, the chemomechanical preparation and complete disinfection of root canal is the key in success of endodontic therapy.
Intracanal medicaments have been thought an essential step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning may be assuming greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Intracanal medicament is generally recommended when treatment cannot be completed in one appointment; there are chances that surviving intracanal bacteria often proliferate between appointments. Walton stated that “Intra-canal medicaments have traditionally gone hand-in-glove with endodontics. They are generally considered to be an integral part of treatment and important to the success of root canal therapy.” However, intracanal medicaments in modern endodontics have a somewhat different rationale. To curtail bacterial regrowth and possibly even improve bacterial suppression, an intracanal medication can be advantageous and successfully used to eliminate the bacterial flora. Interappointment antimicrobial medication acts by inhibiting proliferation of bacteria and further eliminates surviving bacteria, as well as minimizes ingress of pathogens through a leaking restoration. Usually, in the treatment of teeth with a vital pulp, there is no need for intracanal medication. The question of the role of intracanal medicaments becomes more relevant, and complex, in the treatment of cases with pulpal necrosis and apical periodontitis. There is overwhelming evidence in the literature that most of the root canals contain viable microorganisms even after the completion of the chemomechanical preparation. By using intracanal medicaments, it may be possible that a more thorough instrumentation is achieved because of the longer overall time used for the treatment. On the other hand, several appointments can also increase the risk for aseptic complications, for example, through a leaking temporary filling and poor patient compliance. Hence, the more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. With the advent of single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, there is question mark on the efficacy of intracanal medicaments. There are various reports which have shown that the clinical outcomes between single- and multiple-visit endodontics are quite similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics. however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, an intracanal medicament is strongly recommended. Therefore, intracanal medicaments, which were the earlier the “shining stars” of endodontic treatment protocol, seem to have been retired from the front line but still retain some significance. According to Kawashima et al., intracanal medicament is defined as temporary placement of medicaments with good biocompatibility into root canals for the purpose of inhibiting coronal invasion of bacteria. Despite conflicting claims, no medicament appears to be ideal, and significant variability exists in clinical dental practice regarding their use.
| Properties of an Ideal Intracanal Medicament|| |
- It should be an effective antimicrobial agent
- It should be nonirritating to the periradicular tissues
- It should remain stable in solution
- It should have a prolonged antimicrobial effect
- It should be active in the presence of blood, serum, and protein derivatives of tissues
- It should have low surface tension
- It should not interfere with the repair of periradicular tissues
- It should not stain tooth structure
- It should not induce a cell-mediated immune response.
| Indications of Intracanal Medicaments|| |
- To dry persistently wet or the so-called weeping canals
- To eliminate any remaining microbes in the pulp space
- To render root canal contents inert
- To neutralize tissue debris
- To act as a barrier against leakage from an interappointment dressing in symptomatic cases.
Grossman first mentioned about the utilization of polyantibiotic paste as an intracanal medicament in weeping canals or where there was continuous seepage from the pulp space. He advocated Penicillin, bacitracin, and streptomycin, with caprylate sodium (PBSC) containing penicillin, bacitracin, and streptomycin, with caprylate sodium as vehicle. Later on, PBSC was revised as Penicillin, bacitracin, and streptomycin, with neomycin (PBSN) for neomycin as an antifungal agent. PBSC contained penicillin to target Gram-positive organisms, bacitracin for penicillin-resistant strains, streptomycin for Gram-negative organisms, and caprylate sodium to target yeasts – these components were suspended in a silicone vehicle. Apart from calcium hydroxide, phenolic preparations, formaldehyde, chlorhexidine (CHX), halogens, and steroids preparation are also being used. Calcium hydroxide was introduced into dentistry by Hermann in 1920. Later on, it came to be widely used for root canal treatment during 1970s and is now regarded as one of the first choices as a multiple-visit root canal medication. Bystrom and Sundqvist in around 1980s suggested its antimicrobial efficacy, and later, this property was used for the disinfection of root canals. Sjogren in 1991 stated that Ca(OH)2 applied for 7 days eliminated bacteria in canal systems even up to 5 weeks later. Bystrom in 1985 confirmed that even at 1 month of treatment, the efficacy of calcium hydroxide is well. Of total, only 0.17% of calcium hydroxide dissolves to form Ca++ and OH, and it requires at least 1 day to exert full effect; hence, Ca(OH)2 is a slow-acting antiseptic. Direct-contact experimentsin vitro also showed that a 24-h contact period is required for complete killing of enterococci. Moreover, this is the reason why it cannot be used as a successful irrigant as compared to sodium hypochlorite or CHX. In addition to killing bacteria, Ca (OH)2 has the extraordinary ability to hydrolyze the lipid moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), thereby inactivating the biologic activity of the LPS and reducing its effect. This is a very desirable effect because dead cell wall material remains even after the bacteria have been killed and can continue to stimulate inflammatory responses in the periradicular tissue. Hasselgren, Olsson, and Cvek in 1988 advocated that Ca(OH)2 completely dissolves porcine muscle over time. This property may be clinically significant when using Ca(OH)2 as intracanal medicament and then rinsing out with NaOCl (usually not seen over 30 min period by Morgan and Carnes in 1991). Fava and Saunders in 1999 reviewed Ca(OH)2 paste formulations and indications. Vehicle (aqueous, viscous, and oily) plays important role in dissolution kinetics of mixture. Ca(OH)2 may be mixed with sterile water or saline; this formula is also available commercially from a number of manufacturers in sterile, single-dose packages (e.g., Calasept; and DT temporary dressing). The mixture should be thick to carry as many Ca(OH)2 particles as possible. This slurry is best applied with a Lentulo spiral. Sigurdsson in 1992 suggested that Lentulo spiral is most effective technique of carrying Ca(OH)2 to working length. For maximum effectiveness, the root canal must be filled homogeneously to the working length. Saturated Ca(OH)2 solution mixed with a detergent is an effective antimicrobial agent suitable for irrigation.
| Limitations of Calcium Hydroxide|| |
In spite of various advantages and indications of calcium hydroxide, it do have some limitations. There are some concerns regarding the handling of Ca(OH)2 and proper placement of Ca(OH)2, which presents a great challenge to the average clinician and requires skill. Although various formulations are available, still its placement in posterior tooth is difficult. Furthermore, the removal of Ca(OH)2 is most frequently incomplete, resulting in a residue covering 20%–45% of the canal wall surfaces, even after copious irrigation with saline, NaOCl, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Residual Ca(OH)2 in root canals possesses a problem as it can shorten the setting time of zinc oxide eugenol-based endodontic sealers if used for final obturation. Residual calcium hydroxide in the canal is also a concern that it is not totally effective against several endodontic pathogens, including Enterococcus faecalis and Candida species, leading to various incidence of reinfection or flare up. There are many published literature questioning the ability of Ca(OH)2 to completely eradicate bacteria from the root canal.In vitro studies have shown that dentin can inactivate the antibacterial activity of Ca(OH)2, and one clinical study has shown that the number of bacterial colony in the canals even increased after 1 week medication with calcium hydroxide. Studies have also indicated that Ca(OH)2 could not predictably eliminate bacteria or that cultures changed from negative to positive after placement of calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament. Therefore, on the basis of the current available evidence, Ca(OH)2 has limited effectiveness in eliminating bacteria from human root canals when assessed by culture techniques. However, clinically, there are cases showing a positive response and even resolution of sign and symptoms in between appointment in those cases with intracanal medicament compared to nonmedicated root canals.
| Various Other Intracanal Medicaments and Their Application in Modern Endodontics|| |
Calcium hydroxide has been the prototype of any intracanal medicament used nowadays; but, with advancement in the field of endodontics, newer materials have evolved. As we all know that the persistence of microorganisms may be considered the primary cause of root canal failure. The ability of E. faecalis to penetrate into the dentinal tubules and resist bactericidal substances has been claimed to be the reason for this organism to be implicated in persistent root canal infections. This has led to widespread research in endodontics looking for an alternative intracanal medicament. Some of them are even providing more promising results as compared to the calcium hydroxide. CHX gluconate (2%) has been recommended as a potential alternative to calcium hydroxide. Many studies have been conducted regarding the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and CHX mixture and its antibacterial property with the concept that their antimicrobial properties interact in a synergistic fashion that enhances their efficacy. Recent studies have evaluated the tissue reactions to the mixture of Ca (OH)2/CHX, showing that the combination exerts good antimicrobial properties and improves healing of the periapical tissues. However, CHX do have some limitations in clinical application. A suggested clinical protocol for treating dentin before root canal obturation consists of irrigation with NaOCl to dissolve the organic components, irrigation with EDTA to eliminate the smear layer, and irrigation with CHX to increase the antimicrobial spectrum of activity and impart substantivity. Although such a combination of irrigants may enhance the overall antimicrobial effectiveness, possible chemical interactions between the irrigants may occur having deleterious effect on overall treatment. When NaOCl and CHX are combined, a precipitate known as parachloroaniline (PCA) is formed leading to color changes. The formation of a precipitate could be explained by the acid-base reaction that occurs when NaOCl and CHX are mixed together. PCA has been shown to be toxic in humans with short-term exposure, resulting in cyanosis, which is a manifestation of methemoglobin formation. Furthermore, the combination of CHX and EDTA produces a white precipitate.(50) The precipitate was produced and redissolved in a known amount of dilute trifluoroacetic acid. CHX was found to form a salt with EDTA rather than undergoing a chemical reaction. Another drawback of CHX is the premature loss of bond strength that affects adhesive restorations and markedly reduces their durability. Allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock, contact dermatitis, and urticaria have been reported following direct contact to mucosal tissue or open wounds has been reported. Phenol or carbolic acid is one of the oldest antimicrobial agents used in medicine. Despite the severe toxicity of phenolic preparations, derivatives of phenol, such as paramonochlorophenol, thymol, and cresol, are widely available. Phenol is a nonspecific protoplasm poison that has an optimal antibacterial effect at 1%–2%. Derivatives of phenol are stronger antiseptics and toxins than phenol. Severalin vitro studies have shown that phenol and phenol derivatives are highly toxic to mammalian cells, and their antimicrobial effectiveness does not sufficiently balance their toxicity. Formaldehyde, used as formocresol, has been used extensively in endodontic therapy despite its high toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Formaldehyde is volatile and releases antimicrobial vapors when applied to a cotton pellet for pulp chamber disinfection. All formaldehyde preparations are potent toxins with an antimicrobial effectiveness much lower than their toxicity.
Other medicaments such as Ledermix paste have been recommended as routine intracanal medicaments. Ledermix paste has been advocated as an initial dressing, particularly if the patient presents with endodontic symptoms. It is a corticosteroid and antibiotic paste. Ledermix paste contains triamcinolone acetonide as an anti-inflammatory agent, at a concentration of 1%. Ledermix paste is a nonsetting, water-soluble paste material for use as root canal medicament or as a direct or indirect pulp capping agent. Studies have shown that triamcinolone is released from Ledermix paste in the root canal and can reach the systemic circulation via diffusion through dentinal tubules, lateral canals, and the apical foramen. After the first 24 h, 30% of the triamcinolone was released. By the end of 14 weeks, the remaining 70% had been released. In a recent study, the groups treated with Ledermix, triamcinolone, and demeclocycline had significantly more favorable healing and more remaining root structure than the group filled with gutta-percha and sealer. Triple antibiotics paste, composed of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline, was first tested for its effectiveness against Escherichia coli-infected dentin in vitro. The efficacy of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) for elimination of bacteria was first discussed by Hoshino et al. (1996). Its bactericidal efficacy against microbes from carious dentin and infected pulp has also been tested concluding that the mixture of antibiotics is sufficiently potent to eradicate the bacteria. The clinical effectiveness of the triple antibiotic paste in the disinfection of immature teeth with apical periodontitis has been reported. Metronidazole (2%) has been shown to be superior to calcium hydroxide in inhibiting E. faecalis. However, in spite of its good antibacterial efficacy to eliminated intracanal bacterial flora, one potential concern of using an intracanal antibiotic paste is that it may cause bacterial resistance. In addition, intracanal use of minocycline can cause tooth discoloration, creating potential cosmetic complications. To overcome this disadvantage, double antibiotic paste eliminating minocycline has been advocated. The antibacterial activity of these medicaments is well described, but little is known about the potential toxicity on surviving cells in the periapical region. Potential toxicity of these medicaments is a major concern as they are in direct contact with periapical tissue. When in contact with the periapical tissue, a cytotoxic medicament can lead to DNA damage of conjunctive cells, leading to prevention and retardation of healing along with other phenotypic changes.
Halogens are also used as an intracanal dressing in the form of chloramine-T, an N-chloro tosylamide sodium salt. Iodine, in the form of IKI, is a very effective antiseptic solution with low tissue toxicity. IKI is an effective disinfectant for infected dentin and can kill bacteria in infected dentin in 5 min. IKI releases vapors with a strong antimicrobial effect. Tincture of iodine (5%) has proved to be one of the few reliable agents for disinfection of rubber dam and tooth surfaces during the preparation of an aseptic endodontic work field. Natural remedies are increasingly finding their way into endodontic treatment with agents such as Morinda citrifolia, triphala, curcumin, and propolis being evaluated as irrigants and intracanal medicaments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric, has a wide spectrum of biological actions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Its antibacterial activity against E. faecalis has been documented in many studies. Sometimes, even combination of the two medicaments has been used to check for a possible additive or synergistic effect. With the versatility of each case and patient, different materials have their own implications. To answer the question “should intracanal medicament be used in Modern Endodontics,” it is very important to discuss these medicaments available nowadays apart from calcium hydroxide. There are various studies regarding the efficacies of these medicaments and their successful result on the outcome of endodontic therapy.
In spite of the fact mentioned above, placement of intracanal medicament has always been a topic of controversy in the endodontic literature. Particularly in root canals that contain vital pulp tissue as these are not infected before instrumentation or in contaminated canals which have been cleaned and shaped with modern instrumentation technique, do not require medicaments. However, if a root canal is heavily infected before instrumentation, it is highly probable that a few bacteria will remain. In these circumstances, placement of an intracanal dressing to the full length of the canal is the treatment of choice. Intracanal dressing is also indicated in teeth with large periapical lesion and in cases where it is necessary to control the passage of periapical exudates into the canal. Intracanal medicament accelerates the natural healing of periapical lesion, regardless of the bacterial status of the root canal at the time of placement of the material. From the above discussion, it is quite clear that the main aim of placement of these medicaments is to disinfect root canal system to receive a biologically acceptable obturating material. Several new technologies have been introduced during the last few years to improve the effectiveness of root canal disinfection. Increasing attention has been focused on the use of ozone, photoactivated disinfection with low-energy laser, electrochemically activated water, and electric current. One of the latest new developments for canal disinfection is bioactive materials such as bio (active) glass. Recent experiments with nanometric bioactive glass indicated excellent antimicrobial effect in a human dentin model. With the advent of these new technologies, the use of intracanal medicament can be surpassed; but, it cannot be totally eliminated in each and every cases. Other contrary, there are studies that reported no significant differences in healing between teeth filled after positive or negative cultures from the root canal, or between treatments performed in one or two appointments with intracanal medicaments placed. However, these results can be attributed to the fact that ''intracanal sampling techniques suffer from deficiencies that limit their predictive value.” Therefore, it is important as our part to select a proper case and proper intracanal medicament for each and every patient individually, and it is very prudent to understand that irrigation and local antibacterial dressings in the root canal are part of a concerted effort to control endodontic infections. Alone they cannot guarantee success if there are problems in quality of some other parts of the treatment.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Byström A, Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the efficacy of mechanical root canal instrumentation in endodontic therapy. Scand J Dent Res 1981;89:321-8.
Kishen A, Peters OA, Zehnder M, Diogenes AR, Nair MK. Advances in endodontics: Potential applications in clinical practice. J Conserv Dent 2016;19:199-206.
] [Full text]
Zelic K, Vukicevic A, Jovicic G, Aleksandrovic S, Filipovic N, Djuric M, et al.
Mechanical weakening of devitalized teeth: Three-dimensional finite element analysis and prediction of tooth fracture. Int Endod J 2015;48:850-63.
Dalton BC, Orstavik D, Phillips C, Pettiette M, Trope M. Bacterial reduction with nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation. J Endod 1998;24:763-7.
Paquette L, Legner M, Fillery ED, Friedman S. Antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate intracanal medication in vivo
. J Endod 2007;33:788-95.
Neelakantan P, Sanjeev K, Subbarao CV. Duration-dependent susceptibility of endodontic pathogens to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidene gel used as intracanal medicament: Anin vitro
evaluation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007;104:e138-41.
Sjögren U, Figdor D, Spångberg L, Sundqvist G. The antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as a short-term intracanal dressing. Int Endod J 1991;24:119-25.
Siren EK, Haapasalo MP, Ranta K, Salmi P, Kerosuo EN. Microbiological findings and clinical treatment procedures in endodontic cases selected for microbiological investigation. Int Endod J 1997;30:91-5.
Manfredi M, Figini L, Gagliani M, Lodi G. Single versus multiple visits for endodontic treatment of permanent teeth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;12:CD005296.
Sato I, Ando-Kurihara N, Kota K, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Sterilization of infected root-canal dentine by topical application of a mixture of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline in situ
. Int Endod J 1996;29:118-24.
Cohen S, Hargreaves KM, editors. Pathways of the Pulp. 9th
ed. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier; 2006. p. 290-357.
Doran MG, Radtke PK. A review of endodontic medicaments. Gen Dent 1998;46:484-8.
Safavi KE, Nichols FC. Effect of calcium hydroxide on bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Endod 1993;19:76-8.
Lambrianidis T, Margelos J, Beltes P. Removal efficiency of calcium hydroxide dressing from the root canal. J Endod 1999;25:85-8.
Basrani B, Tjäderhane L, Santos JM, Pascon E, Grad H, Lawrence HP, et al.
Efficacy of chlorhexidine- and calcium hydroxide-containing medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis in vitro
. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96:618-24.
Peters LB, van Winkelhoff AJ, Buijs JF, Wesselink PR. Effects of instrumentation, irrigation and dressing with calcium hydroxide on infection in pulpless teeth with periapical bone lesions. Int Endod J 2002;35:13-21.
Waltimo T, Trope M, Haapasalo M, Ørstavik D. Clinical efficacy of treatment procedures in endodontic infection control and one year follow-up of periapical healing. J Endod 2005;31:863-6.
Williams JM, Trope M, Caplan DJ, Shugars DC. Detection and quantitation of E. faecalis
by real-time PCR (qPCR), reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and cultivation during endodontic treatment. J Endod 2006;32:715-21.
Soares JA, Leonardo MR, da Silva LA, Tanomaru Filho M, Ito IY. Effect of rotary instrumentation and of the association of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on the antisepsis of the root canal system in dogs. Braz Oral Res 2006;20:120-6.
Santos JM, Palma PJ, Ramos JC, Cabrita AS, Friedman S. Periapical inflammation subsequent to coronal inoculation of dog teeth root filled with resilon/epiphany in 1 or 2 treatment sessions with chlorhexidine medication. J Endod 2014;40:837-41.
Mjör IA, Moorhead JE, Dahl JE. Reasons for replacement of restorations in permanent teeth in general dental practice. Int Dent J 2000;50:361-6.
Okano M, Nomura M, Hata S, Okada N, Sato K, Kitano Y, et al.
Anaphylactic symptoms due to chlorhexidine gluconate. Arch Dermatol 1989;125:50-2.
Bystrom A, Claesson R, Sundqvist G. The antibacterial effect of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, camphorated phenol and calcium hydroxide in the treatment of infected root canals. Endod Dent Traumatol 1985;1:170-5.
Ellerbruch ES, Murphy RA. Antimicrobial activity of root canal medicament vapors. J Endod 1977;3:189-93.
Abbott PV, Heithersay GS, Hume WR. Release and diffusion through human tooth rootsin vitro
of corticosteroid and tetracycline trace molecules from ledermix paste. Endod Dent Traumatol 1988;4:55-62.
Klotz MD, Gerstein H, Bahn AN. Bacteremia after topical use of prednisolone in infected pulps. J Am Dent Assoc 1965;71:871-5.
Schroeder A. Ledermix 1962 – ledermix today. Evaluation after 13 years of experience. Zahnarztl Prax 1975;26:195-6.
Ghabraei S, Bolhari B, Sabbagh MM, Afshar MS. Comparison of antimicrobial effects of triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide mixed with 2% chlorhexidine as intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis
biofilm. J Dent (Tehran) 2018;15:151-60.
Windley W 3rd
, Teixeira F, Levin L, Sigurdsson A, Trope M. Disinfection of immature teeth with a triple antibiotic paste. J Endod 2005;31:439-43.
Geurtsen W, Leyhausen G. Biological aspects of root canal filling materials – Histocompatibility, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity. Clin Oral Investig 1997;1:5-11.
Baumgartner JC, Lyon TC, Machen JB. Povidone-iodine and isopropyl alcohol as disinfectants in preparation for endodontics. J Endod 1975;1:276-8.
Prabhakar J, Senthilkumar M, Priya MS, Mahalakshmi K, Sehgal PK, Sukumaran VG, et al.
Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Triphala and green tea polyphenols), MTAD, and 5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis
biofilm formed on tooth substrate: Anin vitro
study. J Endod 2010;36:83-6.
Zerella JA, Fouad AF, Spångberg LS. Effectiveness of a calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine digluconate mixture as disinfectant during retreatment of failed endodontic cases. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005;100:756-61.
Tanomaru Filho M, Leonardo MR, da Silva LA. Effect of irrigating solution and calcium hydroxide root canal dressing on the repair of apical and periapical tissues of teeth with periapical lesion. J Endod 2002;28:295-9.
Balakrishna N, Moogi P, Kumar GV, Prashanth BR, Shetty NK, Rao KR, et al.
Effect of conventional irrigation and photoactivated disinfection on Enterococcus faecalis
in root canals: Anin vitro
study. J Conserv Dent 2017;20:125-8.
] [Full text]
Sathorn C, Parashos P, Messer HH. How useful is root canal culturing in predicting treatment outcome? J Endod 2007;33:220-5.
Reit C, Molander A, Dahlén G. The diagnostic accuracy of microbiologic root canal sampling and the influence of antimicrobial dressings. Endod Dent Traumatol 1999;15:278-83.