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Silver nanoparticles: A boon in clinical medicine
Aashritha Shenava, S Mahalinga Sharma, Veena Shetty, Shilpa Shenoy
January-June 2015, 7(1):35-38
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have unique properties which help in molecular diagnostics, in therapies, as well as in devices that are used in several medical procedures. AgNP are nanoparticles of silver which are in the range of 1 and 100 nm in size. The major methods used for AgNP synthesis are the physical and chemical methods. The major applications of AgNP in the medical field include diagnostic applications and therapeutic applications. In most of the therapeutic applications, it is the antimicrobial property that is being majorly explored though the anti-viral property has its fair share of applications. This review provides a comprehensive view on the synthesis and applications of nanoparticles in the medical field. The focus is on exploring their various prospective applications besides trying to understand the current scenario.
  4 1,574 238
A prospective case-control study to assess and compare the role of disclosing agent in improving the patient compliance in plaque control
Mayuri Bhikaji Nepale, Siddhartha Varma, Girish Suragimath, Keshava Abbayya, Sameer Zope, Vishwajeet Kale
July-December 2014, 6(2):45-48
Introduction: Dental caries and periodontal diseases are multifactorial oral health problems that have dental bacterial plaque as their main etiological agent. Dental plaque removal plays an important role in oral health maintenance, which could be achieved by either mechanical or chemical plaque control. Disclosing agents in dentistry are being used to identify bacterial plaque for instruction, evaluation and research purposes. Hence, the current study is aimed at evaluating the effect of at home use of disclosing agent in improving the quality of daily oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: The present randomized, prospective case-control study was conducted among 100 subjects who were selected from the outpatient department of periodontology and divided into two groups. Group A (n = 50) is the case group who were instructed to use a disclosing agent and Group B (n = 50) is the control group who were not instructed to use a disclosing agent. Plaque status of the subjects was assessed using "Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman Modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index" at baseline. Both the groups were trained to perform the similar brushing technique along with same oral hygiene instructions. After 21 days, both groups were recalled, and their plaque status was re-assessed by the same method. The pre and postplaque scores of both the groups were evaluated by unpaired t-test and value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Preevaluation plaque score of Group A was 2.02 ± 0.24 and postevaluation score was 1.08 ± 0.26. Similarly in Group B, the preevaluation plaque score was 1.80 ± 0.92 and postevaluation score was 1.62 ± 0.48. The difference in the plaque scores was statistically significant with a P = 0.00001. Conclusion: The result shows that usage of plaque disclosing agent improves the quality of daily oral hygiene measures performed at home.
  3 4,066 2,275
Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer
Shweta Danaraddi, Anila Koneru, Santosh Hunasgi, Surekha Ramalu, M Vanishree
January-June 2014, 6(1):34-39
Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG), Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene), Turmeric (curcumin), and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.
  3 20,322 984
Role of antimicrobial peptides in periodontal innate defense mechanism
Ashank Mishra, Bagalkotkr Apeksha, Pradeep Koppolu, Swapna Amara Lingam
July-December 2015, 7(2):74-76
The periodontal epithelium neighboring the tooth is precise to form a seal and attachment around the tooth. This exclusive function imparts unique challenges to the tissue and leads to certain vulnerabilities allied with periodontal disease, particularly in view of the continual exposure to the bacterial biofilm (dental plaque) that form that is formed on the tooth surface at the junction of the soft tissue. It is obvious that oral epithelial cells can counter unbroken microbial challenges from dental plaque by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), chemokines and cytokines that boost inflammation and immune response in periodontal tissues. AMPs are early responders of the innate immune system that search and destroy invading pathogens. The large variety of AMPs presumably allows for an effective response to the large variety of microorganisms that invade the mouth and airways. The present paper portrays the association between altered expression of AMPs and some types of periodontitis along with AMPs and their clinical significance in other oral diseases.
  3 1,600 355
Membrane-assisted mineral trioxide aggregate apical plug for management of traumatized immature anterior teeth: Clinical case reports
Raji Viola Solomon, Parupalli karunakar, Sevvana Sree Soumya, Puppala Siddhartha
January-June 2014, 6(1):14-20
Apexification using calcium hydroxide has many disadvantages, such as, it needs more time for the treatment, chance for fracture of the tooth, and incomplete calcification of the bridge. There are many alternative treatments introduced, which have gained popularity, such as, forming an apical plug using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), for excellent results. In cases of wide open apices, it is difficult to limit the restoration to the working length, as such situations lead to the apical extrusion of the material into the periapical region, which prevents further healing. Such conditions can be best treated with the use of a resorbable collagen membrane, which limits the restoration till the working length and prevents the extrusion of the material beyond the apex. The present case reports highlight the non-surgical management of immature teeth by using a membrane as a barrier, with an MTA apical plug, followed by crown rehabilitation.
  2 2,971 394
Bone grafts and bone substitutes in dentistry
Syed Saima, Suhail Majid Jan, Aasim Farooq Shah, Asif Yousuf, Manu Batra
January-June 2016, 8(1):36-38
Bone resorption is a natural phenomenon and can occur due to old age, loss of teeth, prolonged denture wear, or as a result of systemic conditions. For the replacement of teeth by fabrication of prosthesis or the use of implants, a minimum amount of bone density is required. Bone grafting is a method by which bone-deficient areas are built up, with the use of different materials, such as autografts, allografts, alloplasts, and xenografts. Over recent times, the use of frozen bone matrix formulations and synthetic ceramics has been used in greater frequency. This article discusses the use of human bone material (allografts), synthetic materials (alloplasts) and blood components as successful grafting materials. Their use has shown an effective amount of bone formation and proliferation in the defective sites and proves to be a beneficial choice in bringing back lost bone.
  2 1,688 365
A sectional impression tray technique for an oral submucous fibrosis patient with limited mouth opening
Sowmya Mangalore Kumar, Prasad D Krishna, Rushad Hosi Nariman
July-December 2014, 6(2):65-67
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a precancerous condition. It causes difficulty in swallowing, chewing and speaking due to the presence of microstomia. Limited mouth opening is considered as a hindrance in prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient. Special impression procedures and techniques should be considered for making an impression in such cases. This article describes the fabrication of a split impression tray to make a secondary impression of an edentulous patient having OSMF.
  1 4,430 601
Tooth supported overdenture: A concept overshadowed but not yet forgotten!
Rupandeep Kaur Samra, Shreenivas Vasant Bhide, Chhavi Goyal, Taranjit Kaur
January-June 2015, 7(1):16-21
The concept of conventional tooth-retained overdentures is a simple and cost effective treatment than the implant overdentures. When few firm teeth are present in an otherwise compromised dentition, they can be retained and used as abutments for overdenture fabrication. This helps improve the retention and stability of the final prosthesis significantly. Bone is a dynamic tissue. The extraction of teeth results in the initiation of the bone resorption pattern. However, when tensile stress is received by bone, additional bone formation takes place. Such stresses occur when occlusal forces are transmitted to the alveolar bone by the periodontal ligament. This principle helps preserve bone. The concept of overdentures may not be the elixir, but it is a positive means for delaying the process of complete endentulism and helps in the preservation of bone. To top it all, it gives the patient the satisfaction of having prosthesis with his natural teeth still present. In this article, case reports with three different types of Overdentures are discussed: Overdenture with cast copings with short dowels, O-ring attachments, and a customized bar supported overdenture with copings.
  1 28,772 2,776
Role of female reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone in temporomandibular disorder in female patients
Santosh R Patil, Nidhi Yadav, Mohammed Assayed Mousa, Abdalwhab Alzwiri, Mohamed Kassab, Rohit Sahu, Satish Chuggani
July-December 2015, 7(2):41-43
Aim: The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of female reproductive hormones estrogen and progesterone in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in female patients. Materials and Methods: Serum estrogen and progesterone levels of 200 female participants who had varying grades of TMD were measured by enzyme immunoassay competition method in the luteal phase of menstrual cycle. Results: Mean serum concentration of estrogen was 302.1 ± 3.16 pg/mL, and the mean serum concentration of progesterone was 1.68 ± 38.3 ng/mL. Mean serum levels of estrogen and progesterone increased with increasing severity of TMD. Conclusion: Increased serum levels of estrogen and progesterone with increased grade of severity of TMD suggest role of these hormones as etiological factors for TMD.
  1 2,376 2,588
An ancient herb aloevera in dentistry: A review
Indavara Eregowda Neena, Edagunji Ganesh, Parameshwarappa Poornima, Roopa Korishettar
January-June 2015, 7(1):25-30
The Egyptians called Aloe the "plant of immortality" because it can live and even bloom without soil. Aloe vera is well-known for its marvelous medicinal properties. These plants are one of the richest sources of health for human beings coming from nature. It has been grown as an ornamental plant widely. Products of the plant are used in the treatment of various ailments. A. vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there are no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. A. vera has been used in dentistry for its wound-healing effects, gingivitis, plaque control, and curing oral mucosal lesions. A. vera may also reduce the pain and duration of oral ulcers while speeding healing. The dentists should use A. vera at a level high enough to maximize its therapeutic benefit.
  1 2,306 389
Neopterin as a diagnostic biomarker for diagnosis of inflammatory diseases like periodontitis
Jammula Surya Prasanna, Chinta Sumadhura, Parupalli Karunakar
January-June 2017, 9(1):45-49
Neopterin is a catabolic product of guanosine triphosphate, a purine nucleotide and belongs to the group pteridines. When the cytokine interferon gamma stimulates the human macrophages, they synthesize the neopterin. It is an indicative of a pro-inflammatory immune status and hence serves as a cellular immune system marker. In most of the diseases, in which the cellular immune system is involved, we find that the neopterin concentrations are usually high. In the periodontal diseases, the levels of neopterin usually fluctuate which is proved by its increase in disease progression and a decrease after treatment. Periodontal diseases are characterized by enhanced macrophage infiltration to the periodontal lesion, so neopterin being a macrophage activation marker may be seen in higher levels. This review deals with neopterin and its mechanism and its use as a marker in the diagnosis of the periodontal diseases.
  1 1,757 181
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